Systems and technologies underpinning CAVs
What are the systems and companies working on the technology that underpin CAVs?
How the Autonomous Car Works: A Technology Overview
How does an autonomous vehicle work? How does it understand what it sees? How does it know where to go? This article tries to provide you with a foundational understanding of the main mechanics of how an autonomous car works, covering the functional architecture, vehicle hardware and software and how they work together.
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[To include hardware/sensors and software]
Perception and response
[How are the inputs from the sensing systems turned into actionable information that guides the operation of the AV? To include brief discussion of Trolley Problems (and why they are not relevant in the development of AVs!)]
How do Self-Driving Cars See? Computer Vision for Object Detection
An autonomous vehicle needs sensory input devices like cameras, radar and lasers to allow the car to perceive the world around it, creating a digital map. How in the world do cars do this? Using computer vision, a field of machine learning and AI! (...)
Computer Vision is a discipline that allows a computer equipped with a camera to understand its environment. Computer vision techniques are used in autonomous vehicles to detect pedestrians or other objects, but can also be used to diagnose cancers by looking for abnormalities in images. (...)
Sensor fusion is a crucial step for autonomous vehicles. How are the sensors used in autonomous vehicles? This discipline is used in autonomous vehicles in the Perception step, used to understand the world around our car by combining the sensors present. The autonomous vehicle uses a large number of sensors to understand its environment, to locate and move. (...)
[How the outputs from the sensing systems are turned into movement?]
While the future of the automotive industry is still unwritten, here is what we know: Industry leaders will need to master connectivity to deliver the V2X (vehicle-to-everything) capabilities fully autonomous driving promises.
Autonomous driving is both an audacious visionary goal and a highly achievable feat of technical engineering. The race to launching the industry’s first fully autonomous car is accelerating, as technology companies like Apple and Waymo battle car companies Audi, Ford, Tesla, Renault, Waymo and ride sharing companies Lyft and Uber to overcome technical challenges and enable an entirely new way of driving that will surprise and delight users. (...)
[How does an AV know where it is in the world? To include SLAM/visual odometry, GPS and HD maps]
In a self-driving car car, GPS (Global Positioning Systems) use trilateration to locate our position. In these measurements, there may be an error from 1 to 10 meters. This error is too important and can potentially be fatal for the passengers or the environment of the autonomous vehicle. We therefore include a step called localization. (...)